Apply These Secret Techniques To Improve Pregnancy Loss And Chromosome Testing For Miscarriages March 27, 2021 March 27, 2021 MarielleVera

Although most couples are blissfully unacquainted with the statistics surrounding miscarriage, pregnancy loss is in fact quite common, with 10-25% of recognized pregnancies ending in miscarriage. Assuming you have suffered a pregnancy loss or are currently in the process of having a miscarriage, you could be wondering what caused losing and worry about whether it’ll happen again. This article aims to answer the next questions:

What causes miscarriage?
How common is pregnancy loss?
What sort of genetic testing is available for miscarriage tissue?
How can chromosome testing help?
Causes of Miscarriage

There are many different reasons why miscarriage occurs, but the most common cause for first trimester miscarriage is a chromosome abnormality. Chromosome abnormalities – extra or missing whole chromosomes, also known as “aneuploidy” – occur due to a mis-division of the chromosomes in the egg or sperm involved with a conception. Typically, humans have 46 chromosomes which come in 23 pairs (22 pairs numbered from 1 to 22 and then the sex chromosomes, X and Y). For a child to develop normally it is essential that it have exactly the right level of chromosome material; missing or extra material during conception or within an embryo or fetus could cause a female to either not become pregnant, miscarry, or have a baby with a chromosome syndrome such as Down syndrome.

Over 50% of most first trimester miscarriages are caused by chromosome abnormalities. This number may be closer to 75% or more for women aged 35 years and over who’ve experienced recurrent pregnancy loss. Overall, the rate of chromosome abnormalities and the rate of miscarriage both increase with maternal age, with a steep increase in women older than 35.

Pregnancy Loss – How Common is it?

Miscarriage is far more common than a lot of people think. Up to one atlanta divorce attorneys four recognized pregnancies is lost in first trimester miscarriage. The chance of experiencing a miscarriage also increases as a mother gets older.

Most women who experience a miscarriage continue to get a healthy pregnancy and never miscarry again. However, some women appear to be more prone to miscarriage than others. About five percent of fertile couples will experience two or more miscarriages.

Of note, the rate of miscarriage seems to be increasing. One reason for this may be awareness – more women know they’re having a miscarriage because home pregnancy tests have improved early pregnancy detection rates in the last decade, whereas before the miscarriage would have appeared to be just a unique period. Another reason could be that more women are conceiving at older ages.

Types of Genetic Testing Ideal for Miscarriages

Genetic testing actually refers to many types of testing that you can do on the DNA in a cell. For miscarriage tissue, also called products of conception (POC), the most useful type of test to execute is really a chromosome analysis. A chromosome analysis (also known as chromosome testing) can examine all 23 pairs of chromosomes for the current presence of extra or missing chromosome material (aneuploidy). Because so many miscarriages are due to aneuploidy, chromosome analysis on the miscarriage tissue could identify the reason for the pregnancy loss.

The most common method of chromosome analysis is called karyotyping. Newer methods include advanced technologies such as microarrays.

Karyotyping analyzes all 23 pairs of chromosome but requires cells from the miscarriage tissue to first be grown in the laboratory, a process called “cell culture”. For that reason requirement, tissue that’s passed at home is often unable to be tested with this method. About 20% or more of miscarriage samples fail to grow and thus no results are available. Additionally, karyotyping struggles to tell the difference between cells from the mother (maternal cells) and cells from the fetus. In case a normal female result is found, it may be the correct result for the fetus or it can be maternal cell contamination (MCC) where the result actually comes from testing the mother’s cells present in the pregnancy tissue instead of the fetal cells. stillbirth MCC seems to occur in about 30% or more of the samples tested by traditional karyotype. Results from karyotyping usually take a few weeks to months to come back from the laboratory.

Microarray testing is a new kind of genetic testing done on miscarriage samples; both most common forms of microarray testing are array CGH (comparative genomic hybridization) and chromosome SNP (single-nucleotide polymorphism) microarray. Microarray testing can be in a position to test all 23 pairs of chromosomes for aneuploidy, but does not require cell culture. Therefore, you are more likely to receive results and the outcomes are typically returned faster when microarray testing is used. Additionally, some laboratories are collecting a sample of the mother’s blood simultaneously the miscarriage tissue is sent to enable immediate detection of maternal cell contamination (MCC).

Chromosome Testing – How can it help?

In case a chromosome abnormality is identified, the kind of abnormality found could be assessed to help answer fully the question: “Will this happen to me again?”. More often than not, chromosome abnormalities within an embryo or fetus aren’t inherited and have a low possiblity to occur in future pregnancies. Sometimes, a specific chromosome finding in a miscarriage alerts your doctor to do further studies to research the possibility of an underlying genetic or chromosome problem in your family that predisposes one to have miscarriages.

Furthermore, in case a chromosome abnormality is identified it can prevent the dependence on other, sometimes quite costly, studies your doctor might consider to investigate the reason for the miscarriage.

Lastly, knowing the reason behind a pregnancy loss might help a couple start the emotional healing process, moving at night question of “Why did this eventually me?”.

Chromosome testing could be especially important for patients with repeated miscarriages, as it can either give clues to an underlying chromosomal cause for the miscarriages or rule out chromosome errors as the reason behind the miscarriages and invite their doctor to pursue other styles of testing. For couples with multiple miscarriages determined to have a chromosomal cause, in vitro fertilization (IVF) with preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) testing may be able to help increase their chances of having an effective healthy pregnancy.